Type 2 Diabetes among Aboriginal Peoples in Canada: A Focus on Direct and Associated Risk Factors




The need for determining Aboriginal population-specific risk factors of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus has become increasingly urgent as the incidence and prevalence rates are increasing rapidly and as the need for prevention of diabetes in this population have become a necessity. This is a review of scientific literature that was conducted using PubMed and Medline databases which identified 55 relevant articles. A number of factors including lifestyle, ethnicity, access to health care, and genetic predisposition were identified as putative risk factors of this metabolic disorder. Initial results indicate a number of other risk factors of interest, such as age, Body Mass Index (BMI), Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM), Hypertriglyceridemic Waist (HTGW) and HNF1A a G319S variant and Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). We have categorized these and other risk factors as modifiable, intermediate, and nonmodifiable risk factors; and each of these factors are further subdivided into direct and indirect factors. We will compare these risk factors with those identified by Aboriginal peoples and evaluate for concordance or discordance through focus-group consultations with Aboriginal peoples in our future study. This report describes the role of risk factors acting alone or in combination with others and categorized as modifiable, intermediate, or nonmodifiable. We have also identified factors potentially most effective as preventive measures for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Key words: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; Aboriginal peoples; risk factors; prevention

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